Antioxidants play an important role in preventing stress-related damage to cells. These studies demonstrate that Moringa oleifera is a powerful source of a wide range of antioxidants.
Determination of flavonoids by LC/MS and anti-inflammatory activity in Moringa oleifera. Journal of Functional Foods, 5(4), 1892-1899. Coppin, J. P., Xu, Y., Chen, H., Pan, M. H., Ho, C. T., Juliani, R., et al. (2013).
Moringa’s antioxidant compounds help reduce cellular damage inflicted by normal metabolism activities. Many of these compounds are also potent anti-inflammatory agents such as flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, caffeoylinic acids, and kaempferol), caroteneoids (lutein, xanthins, chlorophyll), vitamins (A, alpha/beta-carotene, C and E), and micronutrients (selenium and zinc).
Antioxidant traits and protective impact of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against diclofenac sodium‐induced liver toxicity in rats. Journal of Food Biochemistry, e12704. APAEl‐Hadary, A. E., & Ramadan, M. F. (2018).
Administration of Moringa leaf extract caused improvements in kidney functions and acted as antioxidant enzymes. The study demonstrated the Moringa Oleifera leaf extract's hepatoprotective activity and recommends using M. oleifera leaves for the treatment of liver disorders.
Evaluation of Adaptogenic Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, 2(3), 243-247. Pasha, S., Khaleel, M., & Som, S. (2010).
This study shows that ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera's leaves exhibit significant adaptogenic activity.
Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10(5), 409-414. Ogbunugafor, H. A., Eneh, F. U., Ozumba, A. N., Igwo-Ezikpe, M. N., Okpuzor, J., Igwilo, I. O., ... & Onyekwelu, O. A. (2011).
This study shows that Moringa Oleifera gives high oil yields with significant antioxidant capacity and promising potential for industrial, nutritional and health applications.
A review on phytochemistry and pharmacology of Moringa oleifera leaves (Moringaceae) Basile BS Konmy, Pascal Abiodoun Olounladé, Sanni-yo Doko Allou, Erick Virgile Bertrand Azando and Mawulé Sylvie Hounzangbé-Adoté (2016).
This review concludes that studies conducted on moringa's phytochemicals and cell walls, as well tests on animals, are concordant in their support for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant as well as hypolipidaemic, anti-diabetic and anthelminthic properties of moringa oleifera.
Studies on the anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of Moringa oleifera and Aegle marmelos. Fitoterapia 65(2): 119-123. Udupa SL,AL Udupa, et al. (1994).
This study shows that moringa demonstrates acute anti-inflammatory activity, a characteristic likely caused by facilitating the cross-linking of collagen.
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Hot Water Extract of Moringa Oleifera. International Journal of Drug Targets 4(1): 25-31 Tsala, David Emery & Foyet, Harquin Simplice & Ndzana Martin Thierry, Bella & Justin, Bada & Justin, Baima & Emmanuel, Ndoumga.(2013)
Moringa oleifera significantly inhibited edema induced by xylen in a dose-dependent manner, compared to controls. These data suggested that the leaves of M. oleifera can inhibit the early phase of inflammation, and can play an important role in addressing chronic inflammation.
The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 28;116(3):439-46. Epub Dec 23. Department of Pharmacology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand.Chumark P, Khunawat P, Sanvarinda Y, Phornchirasilp S, Morales NP, Phivthong-Ngam L, Ratanachamnong P, Srisawat S, Pongrapeeporn KU. (2007).
This study concludes that Moringa Oleifera leaves possess a strong therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases due to potent antioxidant properties and its ability prevent clogged arteries and reduce lipid levels in the blood.
Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and antiquorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera. Food Chem Toxicol. Jun;47(6):1109-16.Links Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Mushlim University, Aligarh 202 001, India. Singh BN, Singh BR, Singh RL, Prakash D, Dhakarey R, Upadhyay G, Singh HB (2009).
The aqueous extract of moringa leaf, fruit and seed was assessed to examine antioxidant potential and ability to inhibit the oxidative DNA damage. Analysis determined that these extracts significantly inhibit DNA damage, in particular the leaf extract, because of its higher total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, and ascorbic acid content.
Elucidation of free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera pods. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 4(4), 566e571. Paliwal, R., Sharma, V., Sharma, P., & Sharma, S. (2011).
This study shows that dietary antioxidants play an important role in maintaining the integrity of living organisms and that oxidative stress can be attenuated by diets containing Moringa oleifera.
Investigation on some physicochemical antioxidant and toxicological properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil. Acta Pharmaceutica Zagreb 47(4): 287-290 Njoku OU, and MU Adikwu (1997).
This study shows that moringa seed oil has potent antioxidant properties and high phenolic content.
Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Jun;56( 4):287-91. Nutraceutical Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D: (2005).
This study explains that free radicals cause damage to cellular bio-molecules like nucleic acid, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, and consequently may be a contributing factor in oxidative stress and several diseases. Antioxidants interfere with the production of free radicals; moringa oleifera contains many potent antioxidants such as kaempferols, carotenoids, limonoids, tocopherols, ascorbates and polyphenols.
Antioxidant and antifatigue properties of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera in rats subjected to forced swimming endurance test. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Lamou, B., Taiwe, G. S., Hamadou, A., Houlray, J., Atour, M. M., & Tan, P. V. (2016). (2016).
The study shows that rats who were administered moringa extracts showed improved physical performance. Their maximum swimming time increased, as well as their blood hemoglobin and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and significantly decreased oxidative stress. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. The anti-fatigue properties of moringa stem from its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid.
Impact of antioxidants from drumstick leaves on the lipid profile of hyperlipidemics. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology, 4(1), 165e172. Nambiar, V. S., Guin, P., Parnami, S., & Daniel, M. (2010).
Moringa leaves are rich sources of antioxidants such as polyphenols and carotenoids which are beneficial for the prevention of several chronic degenerative disorders.
Effect of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on free-phenolic compounds and mono/oligosaccharides from Moringa oleifera leaves: Bioaccessibility, intestinal permeability and antioxidant capacity. Food Research International. Caicedo-Lopez, L. H., Luzardo-Ocampo, I., Cuellar-Nuñez, M. L., Campos-Vega, R., Mendoza, S. A., & Loarca-Piña, G. (2018).
M. oleifera phenolics/oligosaccharides are bioaccessible during digestion. The non-digestible fraction retains the highest contents of bioactive compounds.
Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoid, Quercetin Content and Antioxidant Activity of Standardized Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf from Regions with Different Elevation. Pharmacognosy Journal, 10(6s). Sulastri, E., Zubair, M. S., Anas, N. I., Abidin, S., Hardani, R., & Yulianti, R. (2018).
This study reveals the potency of standardized extracts of Moringa oleifera growing in medium altitude to be developed as antioxidant herbal medicine.
Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, phytochemical and toxicological properties of the methanolic leaf extract of commercially processed Moringa oleifera in some laboratory animals. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology, 26(5), 491-499. Adedapo, A. A., Falayi, O. O., & Oyagbemi, A. A. (2015).
The phytochemical analysis showed that the extract contained flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, tannins and saponins. The analgesic effects were comparable to that of indomethacin used at 10 mg/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test, the extract reduced the formation of oedema especially at a dose of 200 mg/kg. In the anti-oxidant test, the extract was found to possess a free radical-scavenging property and is concentration related.
Moringa oil: A" new yet old" unique cosmetic emollient. INFORM-CHAMPAIGN-, 17(11), 739. Kleiman, R., Brown, J., & Hill, J. (2006).
Present-day research has yielded new and exciting uses for moringa oil in cosmetic and personal care formulations. The tactile, chemical, mechanical and physical properties of this oil and its derivatives have revealed promising results. The exceptional oxidative stability of moringa oil and its derivatives leads to cosmetic formulations that resist rancidity and, over time, remain as fresh and as stable as the day they were packaged.
Moringa oleifera seeds and oil: Characteristics and uses for human health. International journal of molecular sciences, 17(12), 2141. Leone, A., Spada, A., Battezzati, A., Schiraldi, A., Aristil, J., & Bertoli, S. (2016).
The seeds and oil of M. oleifera are interesting for their nutritional composition and their content of bioactive compounds.
Seed yield components, oil content, and fatty acid composition of two cultivars of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) growing in the Arid Chaco of Argentina. Industrial Crops and Products, 33(2), 389-394. Ayerza, R. (2011).
The recognition that moringa oil has value in cosmetics has increased interest in cultivating it for seed-oil. Monounsaturated ω-9 oleic fatty acid account for more than 70% of the total fatty acids. The polyunsaturated ω-6 linoleic fatty acid content of the African cultivar was slightly, but significantly higher than that of PKM-1.
Compositional and nutritional attributes of seeds from the multiple purpose tree Moringa oleifera Lamarck. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(6), 815-820. Oliveira, J. T. A., Silveira, S. B., Vasconcelos, I. M., Cavada, B. S., & Moreira, R. A. (1999).
The mature seeds contain 332.5 g crude protein, 412.0 g crude fat, 211.2 g carbohydrate and 44.3 g ash per kg dry matter. The essential amino acid profile compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU scoring pattern requirements for different age groups showed exceptionally high doses of methionine + cysteine (43.6 g kg−1 protein) close to that of human milk, chicken egg and cow's milk.
Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical variations in thirteen Moringa oleifera Lam. Cultivars. Molecules, 19(7), 10480-10494. Ndhlala, A. R., Mulaudzi, R., Ncube, B., Abdelgadir, H. A., du Plooy, C. P., & Van Staden, J. (2014).
This study assesses variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used to evaluate the activity. Variation in the antioxidant activity is observed with activity often five times higher than that of ascorbic acid (reference compound). This study also offers an understanding on variations between cultivars from different geographical locations and its important in the search for antioxidant supplementation and anti-ageing products.
Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera L., grown in Ghana. Food Chemistry, 122(4), 1047-1054. Amaglo, N. K., Bennett, R. N., Curto, R. B. L., Rosa, E. A., Turco, V. L., Giuffrida, A., ... & Timpo, G. M. (2010).
The purpose of this study was to determine the types and levels of major phytochemicals (non-nutrients) and nutrients in the different tissues from vegetative and flowering Moringa oleifera L. an important multipurpose crop. Rhamnose and acetyl-rhamnose-substituted glucosinolates were found in all of the M. oleifera tissues with different profiles depending on the tissue. In addition the tissues of M. oleifera had a relatively complex flavonoid profile consisting of glucosides, rutinosides, malonylglucosides and traces of acetylglucosides of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. Fatty acid profiling of the different tissues showed that leaves were rich in palmitic (16:0) and linolenic (18:3) acid whereas seeds were predominated by oleic acid (18:1). Roots were rich in palmitic and oleic acid, whereas stems and twigs predominately contained palmitic acid. Potassium, magnesium and calcium were the predominant minerals in all of the tissues.
Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream. Advances in Dermatology and Allergology/Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii, 31(2), 71.Ali, A., Akhtar, N., & Chowdhary, F. (2014).
The active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw(skin wrinkles) parameters. The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.
Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bioresour Technol. 2007 Jan;98(1):232-6. Epub Jan 6. Institute of Bioagricultural Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC. Chuang PH, Lee CW, Chou JY, Murugan M, Shieh BJ, Chen HM (2006).
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.
M. oleifera has antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, both gram-negative and gram-positive, Creams containing leaf extract of M. oleifera showed effectiveness in improving skin hydration, preventing the absorption of UV radiation. The leaf extract of M. oleifera may be used in topical formulations in the prevention and treatment of diseases mediated by oxidative stress and photo-aging, it helps in skin rejuvenation and displays significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Healing effects may be due to its high protein content, zinc and antimicrobial components. The presence of flavonoids is reason to encourage researchers to evaluate the photoprotective potential of Moringa
Role of Flavonoids as Wound Healing Agent. In Phytochemicals-Source of Antioxidants and Role in Disease Prevention. IntechOpen. Aslam, M. S., Ahmad, M. S., Riaz, H., Raza, S. A., Hussain, S., Qureshi, O. S., ... & Javed, O. (2018).
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds used as wound healing agents, they are found in abundance in Moringa oleifera, Buddleja globosa, Butea monosperma, Parapiptadenia rigida and Ononis spinosa..
Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of Moringa oleifera. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 10(1), 11-16. Ajibade, T. O., Arowolo, R., & Olayemi, F. O. (2013).
The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg−1 in the acute toxicity test. Administration of the seed extract caused significant significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg−1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses.
Moisturizing effect of cream containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract by biophysical techniques: in vivo evaluation. A. Ali, N. Akhtar, M. S. Khan et al. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 386–391, .2013
Effect of Moringa oleifera on undesirable skin sebum secretions of sebaceous glands observed during winter season in humans, A. Ali, N. Akhtar, M. S. Khan, M. T. Khan, A. Ullah, and M. I. Shah, “ Biomedical Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 127–130, 2013.